A Review of Risk Assessment Tools ands Risk Factors Relevant to Terrorism
Terrorism is one of the most serious challenges facing the world today, with a number of countries having recently experienced an increase in terrorism (Wolfowicz, Litmanovitz, Weisburd & Hasisi, 2020). Terrorism has also proved difficult to define and as such, there is no international agreement regarding a universal meaning of ‘terrorism’ (Pressman & Flockton, 2012). Whilst different definitions have been proposed, it is challenging to define something that can take different forms with varying aims and methods (Beardsley & Beech, 2013). Greene (2017) suggests that terrorism has fluctuated in meaning as its definition has reflected ideas related to the time and location to which it is being applied.
The purpose of the review was to examine the literature relating to risk assessment as well as risk factors for terrorism, extremism and radicalisation. As such, the review aimed to address the following:
- What evidence exists on the reliability and validity of the available risk assessment tools used to assess risk of terrorism, radicalisation and extremism?
- What risk factors have been identified as related to terrorism, radicalisation and extremism?